Inmultirea Zmeurului si a Murului

Zmeurul

Inmultirea zmeurului se poate face prin mai multe metode: drajonare, despartire de tufe, marcotaj sau butasire. Cea mai practica metoda este inmultirea prin drajoni.

Aceasta se bazeaza pe proprietatea sistemului radicular al zmeurului de a forma muguri (mai ales pe portiunile ingrosate) din care iau nastere lastari (drajoni), care formeaza tulpinile tufei de zmeur. Acesti lastari se pot forma si din mugurii de la partea bazala a tufei.

La aparitie, lastarii rezultati din muguri adventivi de pe radacini sau bazali se hranesc pe seama plantei mama, dar in scurt timp iti formeaza un sistem radicular propriu, putand fi usor detasati de restul tufei si plantati independent, folosind astfel la infiintarea de noi plantatii.

Capacitatea de formare a drajonilor permite refacerea cu usurinta a tufelor, asigurand astfel longevitatea plantatiilor. Producerea drajonilor se poate face in drajoniere special amenajate, dar si in plantatiile de productie (care dau fructe), in varsta de 4-5 ani.

Lastarii (drajonii) care au aparut la sfarsitul primaverii si s-au dezvoltat in cursul verii se recolteaza cu radacini, in toamna aceluiasi an, dupa caderea frunzelor, sau in primavara urmatoare, inainte de pornirea in vegetatie.
Drajonii buni de plantat sunt cei care au grosimea de minim 10-12 mm, 50-60 cm inaltime si 10-12 radacini. La plantare tulpina se scurteaza cu 15-20 cm.

Murul 

Inmultirea murului se poate face prin: seminte, marcotaj, drajoni, butasi de radacina, butasi de tulpina, despartirea tufelor. Cea mai simpla metoda la mur este imnultirea prin marcote.

Varfurile tulpinilor (lastarilor de 1 an), venind in contact cu solul, se inradacineaza si dau nastere la alte plante. De aceea, varfurile tulpinilor de la plantele de mur pe care dorim sa le inmultim se lasa pe sol (chiar se acopera cu un strat de 10 cm de sol) la sfarsitul lunii august.

Acestea inradacineaza pana la sfarsitul vegetatiei si se pot detasa cu o portiune de tulpina de 30-40 cm, cu ajutorul sapei si cazmalei, toamna sau primavara.

Se pot obtine astfel plante cu sistemul radicular bogat, ce se pot folosi la plantare toamna, dupa caderea frunzelor, sau primavara devreme, inainte de pornirea in vegetatie.
Material saditor de arbusti fructiferi se poate, de asemenea, procura de la toate statiunile de cercetari pomicole zonale.

Ing. Adela Barbulescu

inmultire-mur

Soap Making – How To

Ingredients:

Olive Oil, Coconut Butter, Palm Oil, NaOH (Sodium Hydroxide), beetroot juice, carrot juice.

IngredientsMix the NaOH with the beetroot juice.

Ingredients

Mix the NaOH with the oil.
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Stir until the mix hardens.

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Incorporate any additional materials, essential oils etc. Coffee in this case.

P1230165_2Mix until hardens more.

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Put it into molds. In the cake mold, I put about 2cm of mixture, in order to get a tricolor soap at the end (+ white + orange).

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Take a small break.

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The second mixture, with carrot juice this time. Before coloring it, I did use some white one in the cake mold, to get a tricolor soap in the end.

P1230188I have used a little white mixture to suggest the rose petals edge. Then filled it with orange mixture.
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The entire production of today. P1230194

I have cut it and un-mold it after a week. See the results below:

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This is going to be a nice Martisor for the ladies.

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Rubarba

Descriere: Rubarba sau revent , pe numele ei stiintific Rheum rhabarbarum sau Rheum officinale, este de fapt o leguma folosita in preparatele culinare si in medicina . Rubarba este o leguma sau o planta ornamentala?

– cei care au cautat pe internet rubarba vor zice ca e leguma, pentru ca se gasesc o gramada de retete cu ea.

– cei care au vazut cum arata, vor zice ca e planta ornamentala.

– cei care au gustat o prajitura cu rubarba si stiu si cum arata, vor zice cu siguranta ca este o planta pe care ar trebui sa o aiba oricine in gradina.

Rubarba este o planta care poate atinge, cu tot cu flori , pana la 2 metri inaltime. Tufa formata din frunze mari creste pana la 1 metru inaltime, in functie de varietate si tot cam atat masoara ca intindere.

Ingrijire si cultivare

Rubarba este cultivata pentru coada frunzelor, dar este in acelasi timp si o planta ornamentala, mai ales varietatile cu frunze rosii sau galbene . Cand vine vorba de prepararea rubarbei, unii prefera varietatea rosie, pentru ca are un gust mai bun si este mai frageda.

Atentie, numai coditele sunt comestibile si numai daca sunt sanatoase! Frunzele de rubarba sunt toxice ; ele contin acid oxalic intr -o concentratie daunatoare corpului uman. La fel si coditele ofilite sau cele afectate de inghet.

Prefera locatiile in care sa primeasca soare din plin, desi creste bine si la umbra. Cu toate acestea, caldura in exces va face ca rubarba sa aiba frunze si codite mai subtiri. Solul trebuie sa fie usor alkalin, bine drenabil si bogat in substante nutritive. Pentru o cultura de rubarba , lasati cam 120 cm intre plante . Se uda regulat, desi plantele mature sunt foarte rezistente la seceta. Oricum, in verile caniculare, rubarba creste mult mai greu, intrand chiar intr -o stare de repaus; spre sfarsitul verii – inceputul toamnei, cand temperaturile devin suportabile, planta isi reia ciclul dezvoltarii.

Este bine sa indepartati florile imediat ce apar , pentru ca planta sa isi consume toate substantele nutritive in dezvoltarea frunzelor si a coditelor.

Pe timpul iernii, rubarba poate fi acoperita cu un strat de mulci, pentru ca sa nu se usuce radacina , desi acest lucru nu est eneaparat necesar.

Inmultire

Se inmulteste prin divizarea tufelor sau prin seminte . In cazul inmultirii prin seminte , rubarba va ajunge la maturitate de abia dupa doi ani.

Boli si daunatori

Fiind o planta rezistenta , rubarba nu va pune probleme mari gradinarilor. Nu lasati sa creasca buruieni in jurul ei – acoperiti zona de langa radacina cu mulci, operatie care va ajuta si la pastrarea apei in sol. Pamantul nu trebuie sa fie in continuu ud, pentru ca radacina va putrezi. Daca tulpinile au pete negre , inseamna ca planta a fost atacata de un gandac.

Actiuni terapeutice ale rubarbei:

Planta este cunoscuta in lumea terapeuticii naturiste ca avand urmatoarele efecte benefice:

– laxativ , antiastmatic, antibacterian , antiinflamator , antihemoragic, anticonvulsiv, astringent , tonic , diuretic ;

– recomandat la febra , indigestie , constipatie , disfunctii biliare , boli ale stomacului, dureri abdominale, nevralgii ;

– scade colesterolul , curata ficatul .

Lavinia Rorich, Gradinamea.ro

5 Minute Management Course

Lesson 1:

A man is getting into the shower just as his wife is finishing up her shower, when the doorbell rings. The wife quickly wraps herself in a towel and runs downstairs. When she opens the door, there stands Bob, the next-door neighbor. Before she says a word, Bob says, ‘I’ll give you £800 to drop that towel.’

After thinking for a moment, the woman drops her towel and stands naked in front of Bob, after a few seconds, Bob hands her £800 and leaves.. The woman wraps back up in the towel and goes back upstairs.

When she gets to the bathroom, her husband asks, ‘Who was that?’

‘It was Bob the next door neighbour she replies.

‘Great,’ the husband says, ‘did he say anything about the £800 he owes me?’

Moral of the story:

If you share critical information pertaining to credit and risk with your shareholders in time, you may be in a position to prevent avoidable exposure.

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Lesson 2:

A priest offered a Nun a lift. She got in and crossed her legs, forcing her gown to reveal a leg. The priest nearly had an accident. After regaining control of the car, he stealthily slid his hand up her leg.
The nun said, ‘Father, remember Psalm 129?’

The priest removed his hand, but after changing gears, he let his hand slide up her leg again. The nun once again said, ‘Father, remember Psalm 129?’

The priest apologized ‘Sorry sister but the flesh is weak.’

Arriving at the convent, the nun sighed heavily and went on her way. On his arrival at the church, the priest rushed to look up Psalm 129.. It said, ‘Go forth and seek, further up, you will find glory.’

Moral of the story:

If you are not well informed in your job, you might miss a great opportunity.

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Lesson 3:

A sales rep, an administration clerk, and their manager are walking to lunch when they find an antique oil lamp. They rub it and a Genie comes out.

The Genie says, ‘I’ll give each of you just one wish.’

‘Me first! Me first!’ says the admin clerk. ‘I want to be in the Bahamas, driving a speedboat, without a care in the world.’ Puff! She’s gone.
‘Me next! Me next!’ says the sales rep. ‘I want to be in Hawaii, relaxing on the beach with my personal masseuse, an endless supply of Pina Coladas and the love of my life.’ Puff! He’s gone.

‘OK, you’re up,’ the Genie says to the manager. The manager says, ‘I want those two back in the office after lunch.’

Moral of the story:

Always let your boss have the first say.

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Lesson 4:

An eagle was sitting on a tree resting, doing nothing. A small rabbit saw the eagle and asked him, ‘Can I also sit like you and do nothing?’
The eagle answered: ‘Sure, why not.’

So, the rabbit sat on the ground below the eagle and rested. All of a sudden, a fox appeared, jumped on the rabbit and ate it.

Moral of the story:

To be sitting and doing nothing, you must be sitting very very high up.

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Lesson 5:

A turkey was chatting with a bull. ‘I would love to be able to get to the top of that tree’ sighed the turkey, ‘but I haven’t got the energy.’
‘Well, why don’t you nibble on some of my droppings?’ replied the bull. They’re packed with nutrients.’

The turkey pecked at a lump of dung, and found it actually gave him enough strength to reach the lowest branch of the tree. The next day, after eating some more dung, he reached the second branch. Finally after a fourth night, the turkey was proudly perched at the top of the tree.

He was promptly spotted by a farmer, who shot him out of the tree.

Moral of the story:

Bull Shit might get you to the top, but it won’t keep you there.

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Lesson 6:

A little bird was flying south for the winter. It was so cold the bird froze and fell to the ground into a large field. While he was lying there, a cow came by and dropped some dung on him. As the frozen bird lay there in the pile of cow dung, he began to realize how warm he was. The dung was actually thawing him out!
He lay there all warm and happy, and soon began to sing for joy. A passing cat heard the bird singing and came to investigate.

Following the sound, the cat discovered the bird under the pile of cow dung, and promptly dug him out and ate him.

Morals of the story:

(1) Not everyone who shits on you is your enemy

(2) Not everyone who gets you out of shit is your friend and

(3) When you’re in deep shit, it’s best to keep your mouth shut!

 

THUS ENDS THE 5 MINUTE MANAGEMENT COURSE

Proud to be Romanian, even if I’m not 100%. A response to Britain politician’s campaign “Immigration: Romanian or Bulgarian? You won’t like it here”

“Please don’t come to Britain – it rains and the jobs are scarce and low-paid. Ministers are considering launching a negative advertising campaign in Bulgaria and Romania to persuade potential immigrants to stay away from the UK.”

Response: In fact, we love Romania so much that we would not leave it if the economical situation was not so dramatic in Romania. So, why don’t you come over to learn about us and have a good time ?

YES, it’s TRUE: We’re living in an economically poor country, BUT we are very reach insight. We’re also well educated as some of you might have noticed during time. It’s not my fault that I was born in a poor country, but I’m proud to promote the best of my country and try to change the way some other look at us. But enough with the politic declarations.

I’m working with a lot of guys from Western Europe and especially UK, including my boss, so I have decided to publish this post about Romania and Romanians. This way, you can have a look at the other face of Romania. I’ll bet that you probably didn’t saw this on TV or newspapers.

I’m trying to put together a selections of articles about Romania and Romanians. There are others that are much more worth than me to promote us. And when I say others, I mean people who have proven to be trustworthy and who are much appreciated by the Brits. Starting with HRH Prince Charles . . . yes, you read it right. Some say, Prince Charles of Transylvania.

 

Should you want to see HRH Prince Charles talking about Transylvania, go directly to 07:50 :

 

Boys . . . Do you know Jeremy ? Jeremy Clarkson, one of the co-presenters of the Top-Gear show. You probably know him and you’ll not question him of parti pris when he states: “God ! Ha Ha . . . That’s the most amazing road I’ve ever seen”. I’ll bet he has seen some roads  . . .

Yes, it’s TRUE: we don’t have many highways and some of the existing roads are not in the best shapes. But we’re working on that . . . slowly but we’re working.

 

A 5 minute documentary showing why we’re proud of ourselves and our past. Some can argue that the proud is not keeping you warm, but I would say that we should know about the great things that our forerunners have done and we try to outrun them.

 

News From UK:

Some funny advertisments from the “Why don’t you come over ?” campaign:

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Uleiuri esentiale. Uleiuri medicinale.

Tot Maria ..”Erol, da’ tu nu iti faci uleiurile tale esentiale ?“. Iti dai seama ca m-a cam starnit cu treaba asta, deci imi propun ca anul acesta sa-mi produc si propriile mele uleiuri esentiale, macerate sau infuzate. Statia de distilare exista asa ca trebuie doar chef de treaba. o sa incep prin mai, cu flori de salcam :)

Deci … Ce sunt de fapt uleiurile esentiale?

Uleiurile esentiale sunt substante volatile aromatice produse de plante si pot fi extrase sub forma de lichid. Desi sunt numite uleiuri, aceste substante nu contin materii grase: o picatura pusa pe o foaie de hartie nu va lasa nicio urma, spre deosebire de uleiurile vegetale. Atentie, acestea pot avea un miros intepator si de multe ori sunt iritante pentru piele.

Regnul vegetal cuprinde cateva sute de mii de specii de plante, iar 4000 dintre ele produc esente aromatice. Totusi, doar cateva sute produc esente in cantitate suficienta pentru a putea fi extrase.

Astefel avem urmatoarele categorii:
– uleiuri extrase din petale
– uleiuri extrase din frunze
– uleiuri extrase din radacini
– uleiuri extrase din seminte
– uleiuri extrase din lemn
– uleiuri extrase din scoarta de copac
– uleiuri extrase din coaja de fruct

Metoda cea mai simpla prin care se obtin uleiurile este distilatia cu abur. Aceasta procedura are ca rezultat cele mai curate produse.

Extractia uleiurilor esentiale este costisitoare, din cauza cantitatii mari de materie prima necesara: este nevoie de circa 35 kg de plante pentru a obtine un litru de ulei esential si de mult mai mult in cazul unor plante precum trandafirii. Asa se explica preturile mari cerute pentru uleiurile esentiale veritabile. In industria parfumurilor se folosesc insa de cele mai multe ori uleiuri sintetice, care nu sunt adecvate pentru aromaterapie.

Cum se obtin uleiurile esentiale ?

Distilarea
Este o metoda simpla si economica de extragere a uleiurilor esentiale care presupune folosirea unui dispozitiv de distilare cu aburi, care functioneaza in felul urmator: plantele se fierb sau se trec prin aburi si datorita caldurii se elibereaza molecule de uleiuri esentiale care sunt purtate printr-un tub si recoltate intr-un vas de racire unde se lichefiaza. Lichidul rezultat contine ulei si apa si prin separare se obtin uleiul esential si apa de parfum.

Presarea
Prin presarea cojilor de fructe, se obtin uleiurile esentiale din citrice. Presarea se poate face manual, desi nu se mai practica datorita lipsei de productivitate sau la scara industriala cu ajutorul unor prese mecanice. In general se obtin astfel uleiurile esentiale de bergamota, lamaie, mandarina sau portocala.

Extractia cu solventi
Extractia cu solventi presupune utilizarea unor compusi chimici asa cum sunt benzenul si hexanul. In urma acestui proces rezulta tipuri de uleiuri diferite de cele esentiale:

  • uleiurile absolute au un aspect gros, cleios si se obtin prin intermediul solventilor din plante ca trandafirul, iasomia si neroli.
  • uleiurile de rasinoase se extrag tot cu ajutorul solventilor din cleiurile de arbore si din rasini.

Se foloseste cand plantele au un continut mic de uleiuri volatile sau cand uleiurile isi schimba compozitia chimica. Cei mai utilizati solventi sunt eterul de petrol (pentru flori), benzina (pentru obtinerea rasinilor), alcoolul, grasimi etc.
Este un proces mai complicat si este folosit pentru plantele care sunt foarte sensibile si nu ar rezista procesului distilarii. Din nou, are mai multe variante: macerarea, enfleurajul, extractia cu CO2 etc. Metoda uzuala implica aplicarea materialului aromat pe site din metal intr-un container, solventul este aplicat peste ele dupa care este lasat sa se vaporizeze lasand in urma o substanta numita “beton” (in engleza – concrete) formata din uleiul esential si stearopten. Uleiul aromat este extras pe urma cu ajutorul alcoolului rezultand cea mai pura substanta.
In cazul extractiei cu solventi, uleiul rezultat contine si reziduuri de solventi, ceea ce inseamna ca nu este un ulei pur, asa cum este cel obtinut prin distilare.

Extractia cu dioxid de carbon
Se foloseste in industria parfumurilor, este o metoda costisitoare pentru ca foloseste o tehnologie destul de scumpa. Uleiurile rezultate sunt de foarte buna calitate, sunt pure si nu contin reziduuri.

Filtrarea
Este o metoda moderna, rapida si simpla asemanatoare distilarii si presupune trecea unui jet de abur peste planta suspendata de un grilaj. Se obtine in final ulei esential si apa de parfum.

Macerarea
Un procedeu foarte cunoscut, simplu, care se poate pune in practica si acasa si presupune amestecarea plantelor cu ulei vegetal timp de mai multe zile, determinand descompunerea plantei. Amestecul se agita zilnic. Se obtine un ulei de masaj care a absorbit uleiurile esentiale din plantele utilizate, asa cum este uleiul de morcov, de sunatoare, galbenele, melisa, roinita.

 

Uleiurile medicinale.

Putem obtine artizanal uleiuri cu efecte terapeutice folosind doua metode stravechi, usor de utilizat: fie prin macearare fie prin infuzare in ulei. Unii recomanda uleiul de masline, altii uleiul de jojoba. Tu trebuie sa decizi ce ulei vei folosi.

Uleiurile care sunt obtinute prin macerare sunt cunoscute ca uleiuri elaborate la rece. Durata de extragere a substantelor active din plante este de 4-6 saptamani. Dupa producere, acestea trebuie pastrate la rece, existand riscul ca ele sa se degradeze (rancezeasca).

Putem folosi uleiurile terapeutice fie pentru uz extern fie pentru uz intern. Ele NU sunt uleiuri esentiale, deci nici o frica. Se pot folosi deasemenea diluate in alcool.

 

Vrei mai multe detalii ? Inearca aici.